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Rather, it held that the soul is an eternal, omnipresent, inherently active spiritual essence, then focussed on the epistemology and metaphysics of dharma. They considered the Upanishads and other texts related to self-knowledge and spirituality to be of secondary importance, a philosophical view that the Vedanta school disagreed with.

Hindu philosophy

In contrast, Vedantins extended the scope and value of language as a tool to also describe , develop and derive. The emergence of Vedanta school represented a period when a more knowledge-centered understanding began to emerge. These focussed on jnana knowledge driven aspects of the Vedic religion and the Upanishads. The Upanishads were variously interpreted by ancient- and medieval-era Vedanta scholars. Consequently, the Vedanta separated into many sub-schools, ranging from theistic dualism to non-theistic monism, each interpreting the texts in its own way and producing its own series of sub-commentaries.

Advaita literally means "not two, sole, unity". It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism. He wrote extensive commentaries on the major Vedantic scriptures and is celebrated as one of the major Hindu philosophers from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived.

According to this school of Vedanta, all reality is Brahman, and there exists nothing whatsoever which is not Brahman. Ramanuja c.

They saw Brahman as an eternal oneness, but also as the source of all creation, which was omnipresent and actively involved in existence. To them the sense of subject-object perception was illusory and a sign of ignorance. However, the individual's sense of self was not a complete illusion since it was derived from the universal beingness that is Brahman. Dvaita refers to a theistic sub-school in Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy.

ISBN 13: 9780415245197

Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas , espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities. Salvation , in Dvaita, is achievable only through the grace of God Vishnu. According to this philosophy there are three categories of existence: Brahman, soul, and matter. Soul and matter are different from Brahman in that they have attributes and capacities different from Brahman. Brahman exists independently, while soul and matter are dependent. Thus soul and matter have an existence that is separate yet dependent.

Further, Brahman is a controller, the soul is the enjoyer, and matter the thing enjoyed.

Also, the highest object of worship is Krishna and his consort Radha , attended by thousands of gopis ; of the Vrindavan ; and devotion consists in self-surrender. Brahman or Ishvara desired to become many, and he became the multitude of individual souls and the world. The Jagat or Maya is not false or illusionary, the physical material world is. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu — , stated that the soul or energy of God is both distinct and non-distinct from God, whom he identified as Krishna, Govinda , and that this, although unthinkable, may be experienced through a process of loving devotion bhakti.

He followed the Dvaita concept of Madhvacharya.

Dr Krishna Kanta Sharma's talk on Ishwara as per Sankhya Yoga

Much of the primary literature of Carvaka, the Barhaspatya sutras ca. Early history of Shaivism is difficult to determine. Whereas, Pati means the cause or principium , the word designates the Lord, who is the cause of the universe, the pati, or the ruler. They recognised that those depending upon another and longing for independence will not be emancipated because they still depend upon something other than themselves. The insentient was the unconscious and thus dependent on the sentient or conscious. The insentient was further divided into effects and causes. The effects were of ten kinds, the earth, four elements and their qualities, colour etc.

The causes were of thirteen kinds, the five organs of cognition, the five organs of action, the three internal organs, intellect, the ego principle and the cognising principle. These insentient causes were held responsible for the illusive identification of Self with non-Self. Considered normative Tantric Shaivism, Shaiva Siddhanta [] [] provides the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of Tantric Shaivism.

Kashmir Shaivism arose during the eighth [] or ninth century CE [] in Kashmir and made significant strides, both philosophical and theological, until the end of the twelfth century CE. Even though, both Kashmir Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta are non-dual philosophies which give primacy to Universal Consciousness Chit or Brahman , [] in Kashmir Shavisim, as opposed to Advaita, all things are a manifestation of this Consciousness. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Teachers Acharyas. Tantra Shakta.

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Buddha Confucius Averroes. See also: Buddhist philosophy and Jain philosophy. Main article: Pramana.

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Main article: Samkhya. Main article: Yoga philosophy. Main article: Vaisheshika. Main article: Advaita Vedanta.


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Main article: Vishishtadvaita. Main article: Achintya Bheda Abheda. Main article: Charvaka. Scriptures and texts. Nandi Tantrism Jyotirlinga Shiva Temples. Hinduism portal Philosophy portal. Even within a single school, philosophers disagree on the import of Vedic statements. Hindu intellectual traditions must be understood as standing for the collection of philosophical views that share a textual connection.

There is no single, comprehensive philosophical doctrine shared by all intellectual traditions in Hinduism that distinguishes their view from other Indian religions such as Buddhism or Jainism on issues of epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics or cosmology. The Vedas are regarded as Apauruseya, but by the same token, they are not the Word of God either.

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London: Continuum. Sociology of Religion, Vol. Raman , Hinduism and Science: Some Reflections, Zygon - Journal of Religion and Science, 47 3 : —, Quote page : "Aside from nontheistic schools like the Samkhya, there have also been explicitly atheistic schools in the Hindu tradition.

Unifying Hinduism: philosophy and identity in Indian intellectual history. New York: Columbia University Press. Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence. A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.